Dungeon - Dungeons & Dragons i jego elektroniczne adaptacje. Lata siedemdziesiąte cz.2


Dungeon to jedna z pierwszych (nielicencjonowanych) gier opartych na D&D, stworzona na platformie  PDP-10  przez  Dona Daglowa w 1975 roku.

Don Daglow fanom gier wideo może być znany bardziej z innego pionierskiego tytułu - Utopia, prawdopodobnie pierwszej gry sim (wydanej w 1981 roku).

Dzięki Donowi grupa użytkowników komputerów mogła grać w prostą komputerową grę fabularną.
Była to gra osadzona w realiach fantasy, oparta na mechanizmach znanych z Dungeon & Dragons. Zawierała wszystkie podstawowe elementy aby spełnić warunki fabularnej gry wideo: współczynniki, przedmioty, walka wręcz, dystansowa, auto-mapping, bohaterowie niezależni, zdobywanie doświadczenia i podnoszenie poziomów. Gracze decydowali jakie działania podejmują w walce co czyniło grę nieco powolną jak na dzisiejsze standardy.
Ówczesną innowacją wymienianą w różnych miejscach była "odkrywana mapa" tj. gracze widzieli tylko ten fragment labiryntu, który już eksplorowali uwzględniając infrawizję różnych ras, światło lub ciemność.

In the mid-seventies I had a fully functioning fantasy role-playing game on the PDP-10, with both ranged and melee combat, lines of sight, auto-mapping and NPC's with discrete AI.
Daglow, Don L. (August 1988). "The Changing Role of Computer Game Designers". 
Computer Gaming World. p. 18.


1UP: That was pre-Ultima?
Daglow: This was 1976, I think I wrote that. It was just called Dungeon. It was the first game with line of sight graphics, but calling them graphics is ... [laughs] In the early days, we had teletypes, and they were either 10 characters per second or a lightning-fast 30 characters per second. They would print out the action on paper. So the first Star Trek game that I wrote printed a script of what the characters were saying, and that advanced the action -- because as a playwriting major, duh. But in the RPG, depending on what you could see and if you had infravision -- if you were an elf or a dwarf vs. a human -- it would go through.
We were just getting CRT monitors, and I had gone from being an undergrad to a graduate student, so I was lucky to keep my computer access all the way through. First I was undergrad, then I was graduate, and right after I got my master's, I was hired to be a graduate school instructor. So I never lost my account, and I was always able to write games. We'd print the map of the dungeon in asterisks, and it was a simple calculation because I had a mathematical model of the space inside the machine, and I could calculate what was seen. From that I could say, "Okay, here's the pattern to draw an asterisk to show the party what they can and can't see.
In The Dungeon
1975 saw Daglow attempting a new game, based on a more recent obsession. “The first wave of Dungeons and Dragons fever was sweeping through universities,” he explains. “[Publisher] Tactical Studies Rules had not yet published the big player’s handbook, monster manual and Dungeon Master’s guide, and you bought the game as three small booklets that had been written by Dave Arneson and Gary Gygax.”
Daglow’s computerised version was Dungeon, the first computer-based role playing game. The gameplay of Dungeon consisted of text and “printed accurate line of sight maps”, with the player controlling the movements of six adventurers in a dungeon designed by Daglow. “That line of sight mapping system was the only innovation in the game that wasn’t just an homage to D&D traditions and rules,” he muses.
“Because it faithfully recreated all the turn-based steps of D&D – including the slow-motion time of combat rounds – Dungeon was time consuming to play,” Daglow continues. “I later learned that while I was writing Dungeon on the PDP-10, other designers were writing D&D games on the PLATO system, a different timesharing computer. They made different tradeoffs than I did, but I bet what we had in common was a deep commitment to playing D&D.”
Daglow brushes aside the suggestion that he is responsible for the RPG genre, claiming that “Dave Arneson and Gary Gygax are the ones who deserve the credit for creating RPGs with Dungeons and Dragons.”
“My role was to make that system playable by a single person, instead of having to assemble a whole group of friends to play,” he explains. “By 1975 my friends and I had all graduated from college, so getting those groups together was harder to do. The computer felt like the logical answer. All I can say is that being born at the right time is a great thing! I set out to pursue my passions, and only later did I discover I was the first to do something. Being on the confluence of commitment and good luck is a wonderful feeling.


Około 1980 roku powstała również inna gra Dungeon, która w rzeczywistości była wersją gry Zork, przygodowej tekstówki, która później stał się wzorem dla wczesnych MUD-ów.

I kolejną, trzecią z gier nazwanych Dungeon, była gra zaprojektowana przez sześć osób, również w 1975: John Daleske, Gary Fritz, Jan Good, Bill Gammel, Mark Nakada. I z niej pochodzi tytułowa ilustracja.

Wszystkie z tych gier próbował uruchomić Matt Barton.Warto zapoznać się z tekstem Fun with PLATO.

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